Friday, January 1, 2016

Trên là đường dẫn về các khoa học gia kiêm tu-sĩ Thiên Chúa giáo. Danh sách này dài hơn bài trước của tôi. Nhờ có Alexandre de Rhodes, mà chúng ta có chữ quốc ngữ chỉ cần học 3 tháng là biết đọc, biết viết. Nếu tiếp tục học chữ Hán thì phải mất 3 năm để tạm biết đọc, viết. Trong số các tu-sĩ kiêm khoa học gia, có người bỏ cả cuộc đời ở những nơi họ muốn quảng bá kiến thừc khoa-học.
The cleric-scientists[edit]

Medieval depiction of a spherical earth
·         José de Acosta (1539–1600) –

Spanish Jesuit missionary and naturalist who wrote one of the very first detailed and realistic descriptions of the new world
·         François d'Aguilon (1567–1617) –

Illustration by Rubens for Opticorum Libri Sex demonstrating how the projection is computed.
Belgian Jesuit mathematician, physicist, and architect.
·         Lorenzo Albacete (1941–2014)

American theologian,Roman Catholic priest, scientist and author. Albacete was born in San Juan, Puerto Rico and was a physicist by training.
·         Albert of Saxony (philosopher) (c. 1320–1390) –  
                       Three stage Theory of impetus according to Albert von Sachsen
German bishop known for his contributions to logic and physics; with Buridan he helped develop the theory that was a precursor to the modern theory of inertia[6]
·         Albertus Magnus (c. 1206–1280) –  

Roman sarcophaguscontaining the relics of Albertus Magnus in the crypt of St. Andrew's Church, Cologne, Germany.
German Dominican friar and Bishop of Regensberg who has been described as "one of the most famous precursors of modern science in the High Middle Ages."[7] Patron saint of natural sciences; Works in physics, logic, metaphysics, biology, and psychology.
·         Giulio Alenio (1582-1649) - .

Giulio Alenio published the map in Chinese Wanguo Quantu (萬國全圖, lit. "Complete map of all the countries"), putting China at the center of the world map.

A life of Jesus by Giulio Alenio, 1637.
The Colossus of Rhodesdescribed in a 1620 book by Alenio.
Italian jesuit theologianastronomer and mathematician. He was sent to the Far East as a missionary and adopted a Chinese name and customs. He wrote 25 books including a cosmography and a Life of Jesus in Chinese.
·         José María Algué (1856–1930) –

Spanish Roman Catholic priest and meteorologist who invented the barocyclonometer, the nephoscope and a kind of microseismograph.
·         José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1737–1799) –

Novohispanic (New Spain) Priest, scientist, historian, cartographer, and meteorologist who wrote more than thirty treatises on a variety of scientific subjects
·         Francesco Castracane degli Antelminelli (1817–1899) –

Italian Priest and botanist who was one of the first to introduce microphotography into the study of biology
·         Giovanni Antonelli (1818–1872) –

Italian priest and director of the Ximenian Observatory of Florence who also collaborated on the design of a prototype of the internal combustion engine
·         Nicolò Arrighetti (1709–1767) – Italian jesuit who wrote treatises on light, heat, and electricity.
·         Mariano Artigas (1938–2006) –

Spanish physicist, philosopher and theologian who received theTempleton Foundation Prize in 1995
·         Giuseppe Asclepi (1706–1776) –

Italian Jesuit astronomer and physician who served as director of the Collegio Romano observatory; The lunar crater Asclepi is named after him.
·         Roger Bacon (c. 1214–1294) –  

Roger Bacon's circular diagrams relating to the scientific study of optics

Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum
Franciscan friar who made significant contributions to mathematics and optics and has been described as a forerunner of modern scientific method.
·         Bernardino Baldi (1533–1617) –

Italian abbot, mathematician, and writer
·         Eugenio Barsanti (1821–1864) –  

Model of the Barsanti-Matteucci engine in theOsservatorio Ximeniano in Florence

Italian engineer, Piarist who is the possible inventor of the internal combustion engine
·         Bartholomeus Amicus (1562–1649) – or Bartolomeo Amico or Bartholomeo d'Amici, Jesuit wrote on philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and the concept of vacuum and its relationship with God.
·         Daniello Bartoli (1608–1685) –

Italian Bartoli and fellow Jesuit astronomer Niccolò Zucchi are credited as probably having been the first to see the equatorial belts on the planet Jupiter
·         Joseph Bayma (November, 1816 in Piedmont, Italy– February 7, 1892 at Santa Clara, California) – Jesuit known for work in stereochemistry and mathematics
The different types of isomers. Stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers

·         Giacopo Belgrado (1704–1789) –

Italian jesuit professor of mathematics and physics and court mathematician who did experimental work in physics
·         Mario Bettinus (1582–1657) –

Italian jesuit philosopher, mathematician and astronomer; lunar crater Bettinus named after him
·         Giuseppe Biancani (1566–1624) –

Biancani's map of the moon shows only stylized 15 craters, none of which are clearly recognizable or identifiable as actual craters.
Italian jesuit astronomer, mathematician, and selenographer, after whom the crater Blancanus on the Moon is named
·         Jacques de Billy (1602–1679) –

French jesuit who has produced a number of results in number theory which have been named after him; published several astronomical tables; The crater Billy on the Moon is named after him.
·         Paolo Boccone (1633–1704) –

Italian (Cistercian) botanist who contributed to the fields of medicine and toxicology
·         Bernard Bolzano (1781–1848) –

Bohemian priest, mathematician, and logician whose other interests included metaphysics, ideas, sensation, and truth.
·         Anselmus de Boodt (1550–1632) –

Canon who was one of the founders of mineralogy
·         Theodoric Borgognoni (1205–1298) –    
13th century anatomical illustration showing the circulation of blood.

Dominican friar, Bishop of Cervia, and medieval Surgeon who made important contributions to antiseptic practice and anaesthetics.
Theodoric Borgognoni was born in Lucca, Italy in 1205.
·         Christopher Borrus (1583–1632) –


Jesuit mathematician and astronomy who made observations on the magnetic variation of the compass
·         Roger Joseph Boscovich (1711–1787) –  
The first page of figures fromTheoria Philosophiæ Naturalisfrom 1763. Figure 1 is the force curve which received so much attention from later natural philosophers such as Joseph Priestley, Humphry Davy, and Michael Faraday. The ordinate is force, with positive values being repulsive, and the abscissa is radial distance. Newton's gravitational attractive force is clearly seen at the far right of figure 1.

Jesuit polymath known for his contributions to modern atomic theory and astronomy
·         Joachim Bouvet (1656–1730) –

Plate from Joachim Bouvet's Etat présent de la Chine (1697), 白晋 or 白進
French Jesuit sinologist and cartographer who did his work in China
·         Michał Boym (c. 1612–1659) –  

Jesuit who was one of the first westerners to travel within the Chinese mainland, and the author of numerous works on Asian fauna, flora and geography.
Drawings of Chinese fruit trees from Michael Boym's "Briefve Relation de la Chine" (Paris, 1654). Depicted are theCinnamomum cassia, the durian, and a variety of banana (or plantain) tree, with their Chinese names.
A squirrel (松鼠) chasing a green-haired turtle (綠毛龜), in Boym's Flora Sinensis

·         Thomas Bradwardine (c. 1290–1349) –

Archbishop of Canturbury and mathematician who helped develop the mean speed theorem; one of the Oxford Calculators
·         Martin Stanislaus Brennan (1845-1927) -

American priest and astronomer who wrote several books about science
·         Henri Breuil (1877–1961) –

French priest, archaeologist, anthropologist, ethnologist and geologist.
·         Jan Brożek (1585–1652) –

Polish canon, polymath, mathematician, astronomer, and physician; the most prominent Polish mathematician of the 17th century
·         Louis-Ovide Brunet (1826–1876) –

French-Canadian botanist Priest who was one of the founding fathers of Canadian botany
·         Ismaël Bullialdus (1605–1694) –

Priest, astronomer, and member of the Royal Society; the Bullialdus crater is named in his honor
·         Jean Buridan (c. 1300 – after 1358) –  

"Expositio et quaestiones" in Aristoteles De Anima by Johannes Buridanus, 1362?.
Priest who formulated early ideas of momentum and inertial motion and sowed the seeds of the Copernican revolution in Europe
·         Roberto Busa (1913-2011) -

Italian jesuit wrote a lemmatization of the complete works of St. Thomas Aquinas(Index Thomisticus) which was later digitalized by IBM.
·         Niccolò Cabeo (1586–1650) –

Italian Jesuit mathematician; the crater Cabeus is named in his honor
·         Nicholas Callan (1799–1846) –

Priest & Irish scientist best known for his work on the induction coil
·         John Cantius (1390-1473)—

Polish Priest and Buridanist mathematical physicist who further developed the theory of impetus
·         Jean Baptiste Carnoy (1836–1899) –

Belgium Priest who has been called the founder of the science of cytology[by whom?]
·         Giovanni di Casali (died c. 1375) –

Italian Franciscan friar who provided a graphical analysis of the motion of accelerated bodies
·         Paolo Casati (1617–1707) –

Italian Jesuit mathematician who wrote on astronomy and vacuums; The crater Casatus on the Moon is named after him.
·         Laurent Cassegrain (1629–1693) –

Light path in a Cassegrain Reflector
French Priest who was the probable namesake of the Cassegrain telescope; The crater Cassegrain on the Moon is named after him
·         Benedetto Castelli (1578–1643) –

Italian Benedictine mathematician; long-time friend and supporter of Galileo Galilei, who was his teacher; wrote an important work on fluids in motion
·         Bonaventura Cavalieri (1598–1647) –

Italian Jesuate known for his work on the problems of optics and motion, work on the precursors of infinitesimal calculus, and the introduction of logarithms to Italy. Cavalieri's principle in geometry partially anticipated integral calculus; the lunar crater Cavalerius is named in his honor
·         Antonio José Cavanilles (1745–1804) –  

Statue of Cavanilles at the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid

Sterculia balanghas from the 1790 edition of Monadelphiæ classis dissertationes decemby Antonio José Cavanilles.
Priest and leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century
·         Francesco Cetti (1726–1778) –

Italian Jesuit zoologist and mathematician
·         Tommaso Ceva (1648–1737) –

Italian Jesuit mathematician and professor who wrote treatises on geometry, gravity, and arithmetic
·         Christopher Clavius (1538–1612) –

German respected Jesuit Astronomer and mathematician who headed the commission that yielded the Gregorian calendar; wrote influential astronomical textbook.
·         Guy Consolmagno (1952– ) –

American Jesuit astronomer and planetary scientist
·         Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) –

Copernicus was born and died in Royal Prussia, a region that had been a part of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466. Renaissance astronomer and canon famous for his heliocentric cosmology that set in motion the Copernican Revolution.
·         Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) –

Franciscan cosmographer, cartographer, encyclopedist, and globe-maker. He spent most of his life in Venice.
·         George Coyne (1933– ) –

American Jesuit astronomer and former director of the Vatican Observatory
·         James Cullen (mathematician) (19 April 1867 – 7 December 1933) was born at Drogheda, County Louth, Ireland.) – Jesuit mathematician who published what is now known as Cullen numbers in number theory

·         James Curley (astronomer) (1796–1889) –

Irish Jesuit who was the first director of Georgetown Observatory and determined the latitude and longitude of Washington D.C.
·         Albert Curtz (1600–1671) –

Amussis Ferdinandea, 1662
German Jesuit astronomer who expanded on the works of Tycho Brahe and contributed to early understanding of the moon; The crater Curtius on the Moon is named after him.
·         Johann Baptist Cysat (1587–1657) –

Swiss Jesuit mathematician and astronomer, after whom the lunar crater Cysatus is named; published the first printed European book concerning Japan; one of the first to make use of the newly developed telescope; most important work was on comets
·         Jean-Baptiste Chappe d'Auteroche (1722–1769) –

French Priest and astronomer best known for his observations of the transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769.
·         Ignazio Danti (1536–1586) –

Dominican mathematician, astronomer, cosmographer, and cartographer
·         Armand David (1826–1900) –


Multilingual plate at his birthplace from the World Wildlife Fund.
The dove tree (Davidia involucrata) was discovered by and named after Armand David
Lazarist priest, zoologist, and botanist who did important work in these fields in China. Born in Ezpeleta near Bayonne, in the north ofBasque Country, in Pyrénées-Atlantiquesdépartement of France
·         Francesco Denza (1834–1894) –

Barnabite meteoro Francesco Denza was born on June 7, 1834 in Naples. logist. Astronomer, and director of Vatican Observatory

·         Václav Prokop Diviš (1698–1765) –  

machina meteorologicinvented by Václav Prokop Diviš worked like lightning rod
Czech priest who studied electrical phenomenons and constructed, among other inventions, the first electrified musical instrument in history
·         Alberto Dou (1915-2009),  
Fotografía de Alberto Dou, probablemente en Manresa, en 1993. Facilitada por Manuel García Doncel, S.J.
Spanish Jesuit priest who was president of the Royal Society of Mathematics, member of the Royal Academy of Natural, Physical, and Exact Sciences, and one of the foremost mathematicians of his country.
·         Johann Dzierzon (1811–1906) –

Priest and pioneering apiarist who discovered the phenomenon of parthenogenesis among bees, and designed the first successful movable-frame beehive; has been described as the "father of modern apiculture". Dzierzon came from Upper Silesia. Born into a family of ethnic Polish [1][2]background which did not speak German but a Silesian dialect of the Polish language,[3] he has been variously described as having been of Polish, German, or Silesian nationality.
·         Francesco Faà di Bruno (c. 1825–1888) –

Italian priest and mathematician beatified by Pope John Paul II
·         Honoré Fabri (1607–1688) –

French Jesuit mathematician and physicist
·         Jean-Charles de la Faille (1597–1652) –

Jesuit mathematician who determined the center of gravity of the sector of a circle for the first time. He was born in Antwerp (Belgium), 1 March 1597 and died in Barcelona (Spain), 4 November 1652, was a Flemish Jesuit priest from Brabant, and a mathematician of repute.
·         Gabriele Falloppio (1523–1562) –

Canon and one of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth century. The Fallopian tubes, which extend from the uterus to the ovaries, are named for him.
·         Gyula Fényi (1845–1927) –  

Commemorative plaque on birthplace (Sopron, Hungary)

Monument to Gyula Fényi (Kalocsa, Hungary).
Hungarian Jesuit astronomer and director of the Haynald Observatory; noted for his observations of the sun; The crater Fényi on the Moon is named after him
·         Louis Feuillée (1660–1732) –

(1660,Mane, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence – 18 April 1732) was a French member of the Order of the Minims, explorer, astronomer, geographer, and botanist.
·         Placidus Fixlmillner (1721–1791) –

Benedictine priest, born in the village of Achleuthen[3]near Kremsmünster, Austria, and one of the first astronomers to compute the orbit of Uranus
·         Paolo Frisi (1728–1784) –

Italian Priest, mathematician, and astronomer who did significant work in hydraulics
·         José Gabriel Funes (1963– ) –

Argentine Jesuit astronomer and current director of the Vatican Observatory
·         Lorenzo Fazzini (1787-1837) -  

Priest and physicst born in Vieste and working in Neaples
·         Joseph Galien (1699 – c. 1762) –

Dominican professor who wrote on aeronautics, hailstorms, and airships
·         Jean Gallois (1632–1707) –

French scholar, abbot, and member of Academie des sciences
·         Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655) –

French priest, astronomer, and mathematician who published the first data on the transit of Mercury; best known intellectual project attempted to reconcile Epicurean atomism with Christianity
·         Agostino Gemelli (1878–1959) –

Italian Franciscan physician and psychologist; founded Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Milan
·         Johannes von Gmunden (c. 1380–1442) –

German/Austrian Canon, mathematician, and astronomer who compiled astronomical tables; Asteroid 15955 Johannesgmunden named in his honor
·         Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora (1645–1700) –

Spanist Priest, polymath, mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer; drew the first map of all of New Spain
·         Andrew Gordon (Benedictine) (1712–1751) –

Scottish Benedictine monk, physicist, and inventor, who made the first electric motor
·         Christoph Grienberger (1561–1636) –

Austrian Jesuit astronomer after whom the crater Gruemberger on the Moon is named; verified Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's moons.
·         Francesco Maria Grimaldi (1618–1663) –

Italian Jesuit who discovered the diffraction of light (indeed coined the term "diffraction"), investigated the free fall of objects, and built and used instruments to measure geological features on the moon
·         Robert Grosseteste (c. 1175 – 1253) –

Bishop who was one of the most knowledgeable men of the Middle Ages; has been called "the first man ever to write down a complete set of steps for performing a scientific experiment."[8]
·         Paul Guldin (1577–1643) –

Swiss Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who discovered the Guldinus theorem to determine the surface and the volume of a solid of revolution
·         Bartolomeu de Gusmão (1685–1724) –

Potuguese Jesuit known for his early work on lighter-than-air airship design
·         Johann Georg Hagen (1847–1930) –

Autrian Jesuit director of the Georgetown and Vatican Observatories; The crater Hagen on the Moon is named after him. Naturalized American citizen
·         Nicholas Halma (1755–1828) – French abbot, mathematician, and translator
·         Jean-Baptiste du Hamel (1624–1706) –

French priest, natural philosopher, and secretary of the Academie Royale des Sciences
·         René Just Haüy (1743–1822) –

French Priest known as the father of crystallography
·         Maximilian Hell (1720–1792) –

Hungarian Jesuit astronomer and director of the Vienna Observatory; the crater Hell on the Moon is named after him.
·         Michał Heller (1936– ) –

Polish priest, Templeton Prize winner, and prolific writer on numerous scientific topics
·         Lorenz Hengler (1806–1858) – Priest often credited as the inventor of the horizontal pendulum. Hengler was born in Reichenhofen, Württemberg.
·         Hermann of Reichenau (1013–1054) –

An artistic rendering of "Herman the Lame" as he is sometimes called
Relics of Hermann in Altshausen, Germany
Benedictine historian, music theorist, astronomer, and mathematician
·         Pierre Marie Heude (1836–1902) –

French Jesuit missionary and zoologist who studied the natural history of Eastern Asia
·         Franz von Paula Hladnik (1773–1844) –

Priest and botanist who discovered several new kinds of plants, and certain genera have been named after him. He was born in Idria, Carniola, then in Austria (now Slovenia), the son of a mining official.
·         Giovanni Battista Hodierna (1597–1660) –

Italian Priest and astronomer who catalogued nebulous objects and developed an early microscope
·         Victor-Alphonse Huard (1853–1929) –

French-Canadian Priest, naturalist, educator, writer, and promoter of the natural sciences
·         Maximus von Imhof (1758–1817) –

German Augustinian physicist and director of the Munich Academy of Sciences
·         Giovanni Inghirami (1779–1851) –

Italian Piarist astronomer who has a valley on the moon named after him as well as a crater
·         François Jacquier (1711–1788) –

French Franciscan mathematician and physicist; at his death he was connected with nearly all the great scientific and literary societies of Europe
·         Stanley Jaki (1924–2009) –

Hungarian Benedictine priest and prolific writer who wrote on the relationship between science and theology
·         Ányos Jedlik (1800–1895) –

Hungarian Benedictine engineer, physicist, and inventor; considered by Hungarians and Slovaks to be the unsung father of the dynamo and electric motor
·         Georg Joseph Kamel (1661–1706) –

Czech Jesuit missionary and botanist who established the first pharmacy in the Philippines
·         Karl Kehrle (1898-1996) -

German Benedictine Monk of Buckfast Abbey, England. Beekeeper. World authority on bee breeding, developer of the Buckfast bee.
·         Eusebio Kino (1645-1711) -  
Equestrian statue in Segno
Italian Jesuit missionary, mathematician, astronomer and cartographer who drew maps based on his explorations first showing that California was not an island as then believed and who published an astronomical treatise in Mexico City of his observations of the Kirsch comet.
·         Otto Kippes (1905–1994) –

German Priest acknowledged for his work in asteroid orbit calculations; the main belt asteroid 1780 Kippes was named in his honour
·         Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680) –

Jesuit who has been called the father of Egyptology and "Master of a hundred arts"; wrote an encyclopedia of China; one of the first people to observe microbes through a microscope
·         Wenceslas Pantaleon Kirwitzer (1588–1626) –
Imperial Observatory in Beijing
Jesuit astronomer and missionary who published observations of comets. His name in China was Qi Weicai (祁維材).
·         Jan Krzysztof Kluk (1739–1796) –

Polish Priest, naturalist agronomist, and entomologist who wrote a multi-volume work on Polish animal life
·         Marian Wolfgang Koller (1792–1866) –

Austrian Benedictine professor who wrote on astronomy, physics, and meteorology
·         Franz Xaver Kugler (1862–1929) –

Jesuit chemist, mathematician, and Assyriologist who is most noted for his studies of cuneiform tablets and Babylonian astronomy
·         Ramon Llull (ca. 1232 – ca. 1315)    
Life of Raymond Lull. 14th-century manuscript.

Majorcan writer and philosopher, logician and a Franciscan tertiary considered a pioneer of computation theory
·         Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762) -

French deacon and astronomer noted for cataloguing stars, nebulous objects, and constellations
·         Eugene Lafont (1837–1908) –

Belgian Jesuit physicist, astronomer, and founder of the first Scientific Society in India
·         Antoine de Laloubère (1600–1664) –

French Oratorian philosopher and mathematician who wrote on the parallelogram of forces
·         Pierre André Latreille (1762–1833) –

French Priest and entomologist whose works describing insects assigned many of the insect taxa still in use today
·         Georges Lemaître (1894–1966) –

Belgian Monsignor Georges Lemaître, priest, scientist and father of the Big Bang Theory
·         Thomas Linacre (c. 1460–1524) –

English priest, humanist, translator, and physician
·         Francis Line (1595–1675) – also known as Linus of Liège, was born in 1595, most probably in London, or Buckinghamshire.

·          Francis Line's dial for Whitehall Palace, illustration copied from a work by William Leybourn
Jesuit priest and scientist, inventing magnetic clock and sundial maker who disagreed with some of the findings of Newton and Boyle
·         Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz (1606–1682) –

Hatching table printed by Lobkowitz in 1636

Mathesis nova, 1670
Spanish Cistercian who wrote on a variety of scientific subjects, including probability theory
·         Jean Mabillon (1632–1707) –

French Benedictine monk and scholar, considered the founder of palaeography and diplomatics
·         James B. Macelwane (1883–1956) –

"The best-known American Jesuit seismologist" and "one of the most honored practitioners of the science of all time"; wrote the first textbook on seismology in America.
·         John MacEnery (1797-1841) -

Archaeologist who investigated the Palaeolithic remains at Kents Cavern.
·         Paul McNally (1890–1955) –

American Jesuit astronomer and director of Georgetown Observatory; the crater McNally on the Moon is named after him.
·         Manuel Magri (1851–1907) –

Maltese Jesuit ethnographer, archaeologist and writer; one of Malta's pioneers in archaeology
·         Emmanuel Maignan (1601–1676) –

French Minim physicist and professor of medicine who published works on gnomonics and perspective
·         Charles Malapert (1581–1630) –

Belgian Jesuit writer, astronomer, and proponent of Aristotelian cosmology; also known for observations of sunpots and of the lunar surface, and the crater Malapert on the Moon is named after him
·         Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715) –

French Oratorian philosopher who studied physics, optics, and the laws of motion and disseminated the ideas of Descartes and Leibniz
·         Marcin of Urzędów (c. 1500–1573) –

Polish Priest, physician, pharmacist, and botanist
·         Joseph Maréchal (1878–1944) –

Belgian Jesuit philosopher and psychologist
·         Marie-Victorin (1885–1944) –

Canadian Christian Brother and botanist best known as the father of the Jardin botanique de Montréal
·         Edme Mariotte (c. 1620–1684) –  

French Priest and physicist who recognized Boyle's Law and wrote about the nature of color
·         Francesco Maurolico (1494–1575) –

Italian Benedictine who made contributions to the fields of geometry, optics, conics, mechanics, music, and astronomy, and gave the first known proof by mathematical induction.
·         Christian Mayer (astronomer) (1719–1783) –

He was born in Modřice, Moravia. Jesuit astronomer most noted for pioneering the study of binary stars
·         James Robert McConnell (1915-1999) -

Irish Theoretical Physicist, Pontifical Academician, Monsignor
·         Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) –

Augustinian monk and father of genetics
·         Pietro Mengoli (1626–1686) –  

Italian Priest and mathematician who first posed the famous Basel Problem
·         Giuseppe Mercalli (1850–1914) –

Italian Priest, volcanologist, and director of the Vesuvius Observatory who is best remembered today for his Mercalli scale for measuring earthquakes which is still in use
·         Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) –

Minim philosopher, mathematician, and music theorist who is often referred to as the "father of acoustics"
·         Paul of Middelburg (1446–1534) –

Bishop of Fossombrone who wrote important works on the reform of the calendar. Paul was born in 1446 at Middelburg, the ancient capital of the province of Zeeland, belonging then to the Holy Roman Empire, now to the Netherlands.
·         Maciej Miechowita (1457–1523) –

Polish Canon who wrote the first accurate geographical and ethnographical description of Eastern Europe, as well as two medical treatises
·         François-Napoléon-Marie Moigno (1804–1884) –

French Jesuit physicist and mathematician; was an expositor of science and translator rather than an original investigator
·         Juan Ignacio Molina (1740–1829) –

Chilean Jesuit naturalist, historian, botanist, ornithologist and geographer
·         Louis Moréri (1643–1680) –

French, 17th century priest and encyclopaedist
·         Théodore Moret (1602–1667) – Belgian Jesuit mathematician and author of the first mathematical dissertations ever defended in Prague; the lunar crater Moretus is named after him.
·         Landell de Moura (1861–1928) –

Brazilian Priest and inventor who was the first to accomplish the transmission of the human voice by a wireless machine
·         Gabriel Mouton (1618–1694) –

French Abbot, mathematician, astronomer, and early proponent of the metric system
·         Jozef Murgaš (1864–1929) –

Slovak Priest who contributed to wireless telegraphy and help develop mobile communications and wireless transmission of information and human voice
·         José Celestino Mutis (1732–1808) –

Spanish Canon, botanist, and mathematician who led the Royal Botanical Expedition of the New World
·         Jean François Niceron (1613–1646) –

French Minim mathematician who studied geometrical optics
·         Nicholas of Cusa (1401–1464) –

Cardinal, philosopher, jurist, mathematician, astronomer, and one of the great geniuses and polymaths of the 15th century
·         Julius Nieuwland (1878–1936) –

Belgian-born Holy Cross priest, known for his contributions to acetylene research and its use as the basis for one type of synthetic rubber, which eventually led to the invention of neoprene by DuPont
·         Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700–1770) –

French Abbot and physicist who discovered the phenomenon of osmosis in natural membranes.
·         Hugo Obermaier (1877–1946) –

Priest, prehistorian, and anthropologist who is known for his work on the diffusion of mankind in Europe during the Ice Age, as well as his work with north Spanish cave art. Hugo Obermaier spent his childhood and the early part of his student years in Regensburg
·         William of Ockham (c. 1288 – c. 1348) –

Franciscan Scholastic who wrote significant works on logic, physics, and theology; known for Ockham's Razor
·         Nicole Oresme (c. 1323–1382) –

One of the most famous and influential philosophers of the later Middle Ages; economist, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, philosopher, theologian and Bishop of Lisieux, and competent translator; one of the most original thinkers of the 14th century
·         Barnaba Oriani (1752–1832) –

Italian, Barnabite geodesist, astronomer and scientist whose greatest achievement was his detailed research of the planet Uranus, and is also known for Oriani's theorem
·         Tadeusz Pacholczyk (1965- ) –

American Priest, neuroscientist and writer
·         Luca Pacioli (c. 1446–1517) –

Italian Franciscan friar who published several works on mathematics and is often regarded as the Father of Accounting
·         Ignace-Gaston Pardies (1636–1673) –

French Jesuit physicist known for his correspondence with Newton and Descartes
·         Franciscus Patricius (1529–1597) –

Croatian Priest, cosmic theorist, philosopher, and Renaissance scholar
·         John Peckham (1230–1292) –

Archbishop of Canterbury and early practitioner of experimental science. He was a native of Sussex who was educated at Lewes Priory and became a Friar Minor about 1250.
·         Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580–1637) –

French Abbot and astromer who discovered the Orion Nebula; lunar crater Peirescius named in his honor
·         Stephen Joseph Perry (1833–1889) –

English Jesuit astronomer and Fellow of the Royal Society; made frequent observations of Jupiter's satellites, of stellar occultations, of comets, of meteorites, of sun spots, and faculae
·         Giambattista Pianciani (1784–1862) – Italian Jesuit mathematician and physicist
·         Giuseppe Piazzi (1746–1826) –

Italian Theatine mathematician and astronomer who discovered Ceres, today known as the largest member of the asteroid belt; also did important work cataloguing stars
·         Jean Picard (1620–1682) –

French Priest and first person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy; also developed what became the standard method for measuring the right ascension of a celestial object; The PICARD mission, an orbiting solar observatory, is named in his honor
·         Edward Pigot (1858–1929) –  

 The observatory at Saint Ignatius' College, Riverviewwas founded by Edward Francis Pigot in 1908.
 Irish-born Autralian Jesuit seismologist and astronomer
·         Alexandre Guy Pingré (1711–1796) –

French priest astronomer and naval geographer; the crater Pingré on the Moon is named after him, as is the asteroid 12719 Pingré
·         Andrew Pinsent (1966- ) –
Priest whose current research includes the application of insights from autism and social cognition to 'second-person' accounts of moral perception and character formation. His previous scientific research contributed to the DELPHI experiment at CERN
·         Jean Baptiste François Pitra (1812–1889) –

French Bendedictine cardinal, archaeologist and theologian who noteworthy for his great archaeological discoveries
·         Charles Plumier (1646–1704) –

French botanist, Minim friar who is considered one of the most important botanical explorers of his time
·         Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt (1728–1810) –

Polist-Lithuanian Jesuit astronomer and mathematician; granted the title of the King's Astronomer; the crater Poczobutt on the Moon is named after him.
·         Léon Abel Provancher (1820–1892) –  
 Funeral monument for Léon Provancher, Cap-Rouge

Priest and naturalist devoted to the study and description of the fauna and flora of Canada; his pioneer work won for him the appellation of the "Father of Natural History in Canada"
·         Louis Receveur (1757–1788) –

French Franciscan naturalist and astronomer; described as being as close as one could get to being an ecologist in the 18th century
·         Franz Reinzer (1661–1708) –

Austrian Jesuit who wrote an in-depth meteorological, astrological, and political compendium covering topics such as comets, meteors, lightning, winds, fossils, metals, bodies of water, and subterranean treasures and secrets of the earth
·         Louis Rendu (1789–1859) –

French Bishop who wrote an important book on the mechanisms of glacial motion; the Rendu Glacier, Alaska, U.S. and Mount Rendu, Antarctica are named for him
·         Vincenzo Riccati (1707–1775) –

Italian Jesuit mathematician and physicist
·         Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) –  

Map of the Far East by Matteo Ricci in 1602

One of the founding fathers of the Jesuit China Mission and co-author of the first European-Chinese dictionary
·         Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598–1671) –

Italian Jesuit astronomer who authored Almagestum novum, an influential encyclopedia of astronomy; The first person to measure the rate of acceleration of a freely falling body; created a selenograph with Father Grimaldi that now adorns the entrance at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C.
·         Richard of Wallingford (1292-1336) -  

Richard of Wallingford is measuring with a pair of compasses in this 14th-century miniature.
English Abbot, renowned clockmaker, and one of the initiators of western trigonometry
·         Johannes Ruysch (c. 1460–1533) –

Ruysch's 1507 map of the world.
Priest, explorer, cartographer, and astronomer who created the second oldest known printed representation of the New World

·         Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri (1667–1733) –  
The frontispiece of "Euclides ab omni nævo vindicatus" (1733).
Italian Jesuit mathematician and geometer
·         Johannes de Sacrobosco (c. 1195 – c. 1256) –
Sacrobosco's De sphaera mundi
Irish monk and astronomer who wrote the authoritative medieval astronomy textTractatus de Sphaera; his Algorismus was the first text to introduce Hindu-Arabic numerals and procedures into the European university curriculum; the lunar crater Sacrobosco is named after him
·         Gregoire de Saint-Vincent (1584–1667) –

Flemish Jesuit mathematician who made important contributions to the study of the hyperbola
·         Alphonse Antonio de Sarasa (1618–1667) –

Jesuit mathematician who contributed to the understanding of logarithms
·         Christoph Scheiner (c. 1573–1650) –  

A sunspot-instrument by Scheiner (printed between 1626-1630)

Jesuit physicist, astronomer, and inventor of the pantograph; wrote on a wide range of scientific subjects
·         Wilhelm Schmidt (linguist) (1868–1954) –

Austrian priest, linguist, anthropologist, and ethnologist.
·         George Schoener (1864–1941) –  
 The rose cultivar'Schoener's Nutkana', introduced in 1930

Germnan-born Priest who became known in the United States as the "Padre of the Roses" for his experiments in rose breeding
·         Gaspar Schott (1608–1666) –  
Gaspar Schott's sketch of Otto von Guericke's 
Magdeburg hemispheres experiment.
Germain Jesuit physicist, astronomer, and natural philosopher who is most widely known for his works on hydraulic and mechanical instruments
·         Franz Paula von Schrank (1747–1835) –  
Beyträge zur Naturgeschichte.

German Priest, botanist, entomologist, and prolific writer
·         Berthold Schwarz (c. 14th century) –

German Franciscan friar and reputed inventor of gunpowder and firearms
·         Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita (1604–1660) –

Czech Capuchin astronomer and optrician who built Kepler's telescope
·         George Mary Searle (1839–1918) –

American Paulist astronomer and professor who discovered six galaxies
·         Angelo Secchi (1818–1878) –

Italian Jesuit pioneer in astronomical spectroscopy, and one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the sun is a star
·         Alessandro Serpieri (1823–1885) –

Italian Priest, astronomer, and seismologist who studied shooting stars, and was the first to introduce the concept of the seismic radiant
·         Gerolamo Sersale (1584–1654) – Italian Jesuit astronomer and selenographer; his map of the moon can be seen in the Naval Observatory of San Fernando; the lunar crater Sirsalis is named after him
·         Benedict Sestini (1816–1890) –

Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and architect; studied sunspots and eclipses; wrote textbooks on a variety of mathematical subjects
·         René François Walter de Sluse (1622–1685) –

Canon and mathematician with a family of curves named after him. He was born in Visé, Belgium and studied at the University of Leuven(1638–1642) before receiving a master's degree in law from the University of Rome, La Sapienza in 1643
·         Domingo de Soto (1494–1560) -

Spanish Dominican priest and professor at the University of Salamanca; in his commentaries toAristotle he proposed that free falling bodies undergo constant acceleration
·         Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–1799) –

Italian Priest, biologist, and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and essentially discovered echolocation; his research of biogenesis paved the way for the investigations of Louis Pasteur
·         Valentin Stansel (1621–1705) –

Czech Jesuit astronomer who made important observations of comets
·         Johan Stein (1871–1951) –

Dutch Jesuit astronomer and director of the Vatican Observatory, which he modernized and relocated to Castel Gandolfo; the crater Stein on the far side of the Moon is named after him
·         Nicolas Steno (1638–1686) –   

Illustration from Steno's 1667 paper comparing the teeth of a shark head with a fossil tooth

Bishop beatified by Pope John Paul II who is often called the father of geology[9] and stratigraphy,[7]and is known for Steno's principles
·         Pope Sylvester II (c. 946–1003) –  
 Statue of Pope Sylvester II in Aurillac, Auvergne, France.

Prolific scholar who endorsed and promoted Arabic knowledge of arithmetic, mathematics, and astronomy in Europe, reintroducing the abacus and armillary sphere which had been lost to Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman era
·         Alexius Sylvius Polonus (1593 – c. 1653) – Polish Jesuit astronomer who studied sunspots and published a work on calendariography
·         Ignacije Szentmartony (1718–1793) – Croatian Jesuit cartographer, mathematician, and astronomer who became a member of the expedition that worked on the rearrangement of the frontiers among colonies in South America
·         André Tacquet (1612–1660) –

Jesuit mathematician whose work laid the groundwork for the eventual discovery of calculus

·         Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955) –

French Jesuit paleontologist and geologist who took part in the discovery of Peking Man
·         Francesco Lana de Terzi (c. 1631–1687) –

Italian Jesuit referred to as the Father of Aviation[10] for his pioneering efforts; he also developed a blind writing alphabet prior to Braille.
·         Theodoric of Freiberg (c. 1250 – c. 1310) –

German Dominican theologian and physicist who gave the first correct geometrical analysis of the rainbow

·         Joseph Tiefenthaler (1710–1785) –  
Tiefenthaler's map of theGanges and Ghaghara rivers, 1784
Jesuit who was one of the earliest European geographers to write about India. Born in Bozen, in the county of Tyrol, then in the Austrian empire, not much is known of his early life and studies except that he spent two years in Spain.
·         Giuseppe Toaldo (1719–1797) –

Italian Priest and physicist who studied atmospheric electricity and did important work with lightning rods; the asteroid 23685 Toaldo is named for him.
·         José Torrubia (c. 1700–1768) –

Spanish Franciscan linguist, scientist, collector of fossils and books, and writer on historical, political and religious subjects
·         Franz de Paula Triesnecker (1745–1817) –

Austrian Jesuit astronomer and director of the Vienna Observatory; published a number of treatises on astronomy and geography; the crater Triesnecker on the Moon is named after him.
·         Luca Valerio (1552–1618) –

Italian Jesuit mathematician who developed ways to find volumes and centers of gravity of solid bodies
·         Pierre Varignon (1654–1722) –

French Priest and mathematician whose principle contributions were to statics and mechanics; created a mechanical explanation of gravitation
·         Jacques de Vaucanson (1709–1782) –

French Minim friar inventor and artist who was responsible for the creation of impressive and innovative automata and machines such as the first completely automated loom.
·         Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746–1822) –

Italian Priest who discovered the Venturi effect
·         Fausto Veranzio (c. 1551–1617) –

Hungarian Bishop, polymath, inventor, and lexicographer
·         Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–1688) –

Jesuit astronomer and mathematician; designed what some claim to be the first ever self-propelled vehicle – many claim this as the world's first automobile. He is known He was born inPittem near Tielt in the County of Flanders (now part ofBelgium) as Nan Huairen (南懷仁) in Chinese.
·         Francesco de Vico (1805–1848) –

Italian Jesuit astronomer who discovered or co-discovered a number of comets; also made observations of Saturn and the gaps in its rings; the lunar crater De Vico and the asteroid 20103 de Vico are named after him
·         Vincent of Beauvais (c.1190–c.1264) –

Dominican who wrote the most influential encyclopedia of the Middle Ages
·         Benito Viñes (1837–1893) –

Jesuit meteorologist who made the first weather model to predict the trajectory of a hurricane.[11][12][13]
·         János Vitéz (archbishop) (c.1405–1472) –

Hungarian Archbishop, astronomer, and mathematician
·         Martin Waldseemüller (c. 1470–1520) –

German priest and cartographer who, along with Matthias Ringmann, is credited with the first recorded usage of the word America
·         Godefroy Wendelin (1580–1667) –

Flemish (Danish) Priest and astronomer who recognized that Kepler's third law applied to the satellites of Jupiter; the lunar crate Vendelinus is named in his honor
·         Johannes Werner (1468–1522) –

German Priest, mathematician, astronomer, and geographer
·         Witelo (c. 1230 – after 1280, before 1314) –
 Cover of Vitellonis Thuringopoloni opticae libri decem (Ten Books of Optics by the Thuringo-Pole Witelo)

Friar, physicist, natural philosopher, and mathematician; lunar crater Vitello named in his honor; his Perspectiva powerfully influenced later scientists, in particular Johannes Kepler
·         Julian Tenison Woods (1832–1889) –

English Passionist geologist and mineralogist
·         Theodor Wulf (1868–1946) –

Germain Jesuit physicist who was one of the first experimenters to detect excess atmospheric radiation
·         Franz Xaver von Wulfen (1728-1805) -

Jesuit botanist, mineralogist, and alpinist. Wulfen was born in Belgrade. 
·         John Zahm (1851–1921) –

Holy Cross priest and South American explorer. He was born at New Lexington, Ohio, and died inMunich, Germany.
·         Giuseppe Zamboni (1776–1846) –

Italian Priest and physicist who invented the Zamboni pile, an early electric battery similar to the Voltaic pile
·         Francesco Zantedeschi (1797–1873) –

Italian Priest who was among the first to recognize the marked absorption by the atmosphere of red, yellow, and green light; published papers on the production of electric currents in closed circuits by the approach and withdrawal of a magnet, thereby anticipating Michael Faraday's classical experiments of 1831[14]
·         Niccolò Zucchi (1586–1670) –

Italian claimed to have tried to build a reflecting telescope in 1616 but abandoned the idea (maybe due to the poor quality of the mirror).[15] May have been the first to see the belts on the planet Jupiter (1630).[16]
·         Giovanni Battista Zupi (c. 1590–1650) –

Italian Jesuit astronomer, mathematician, and first person to discover that the planet Mercury had orbital phases; the crater Zupus on the Moon is named after him.

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